20 Things to Learn About APT With the Free Chapter of the Debian Administrator’s Handbook

We just released a sample chapter of the Debian Administrator’s Handbook. It covers the APT family of tools: apt-get, aptitude, synaptic, update-manager, etc.


Click here to get your free sample chapter

I’m sure you will enjoy it. There are many interesting things to learn:

  • How to customize the sources.list file
  • The various APT repositories that Debian offers (Security Updates, Stable Updates, Proposed Updates, Backports, Experimental, etc.)
  • How to select the best Debian mirror for you
  • How to find old package versions
  • How to install the same selection of packages on multiple computers
  • How to install and remove a package on a single command-line
  • How to reinstall packages and how to install a specific version of a package
  • How to pass options to dpkg via APT
  • How to configure a proxy for APT
  • How to set priorities to various package sources (APT pinning)
  • How to safely mix packages from several distributions on a single system
  • How to use aptitude’s text-mode graphical interface
  • How to use the tracking of automatically installed packages to keep a clean system
  • How APT checks the authenticity of packages that it downloads
  • How to add supplementary GnuPG keys to APT’s trusted keyring
  • How to upgrade from one stable distribution to the next
  • How to handles problems after an upgrade
  • How to keep a system up-to-date
  • How to automate upgrades
  • How to find the package that you’re looking for

If you liked this chapter, click here to contribute a few euros towards the liberation of the whole book. That way you’ll get a copy of the ebook as soon as it’s available. Thank you!

I also invite you to share this sample chapter as widely as possible. We’re only at 40% of the liberation fund and there’s less than 2 weeks left. I hope this book extract will convince enough people that the book is going to be great, and that it really deserves to be liberated and bundled with Debian!

Understanding dpkg’s file overwrite error

This is probably one of the most common errors. You’re very likely to encounter it, in particular if you tend to mix packages from various origins/distributions, or if you’re using unstable. It looks like this:

Unpacking gbonds-data (from .../gbonds-data_2.0.3-2_all.deb) ...
dpkg: error processing /var/cache/apt/archives/gbonds-data_2.0.3-2_all.deb (--unpack):
 trying to overwrite '/usr/share/omf/gbonds/gbonds-C.omf', which is also in package gbonds 2.0.2-9
dpkg-deb: subprocess paste killed by signal (Broken pipe)

A given file can only be provided by a single package. So if you try to install a package that provides a file that is already part of another installed package, it will fail with a message similar to the above one.

Sometimes this failure will be meaningful because dpkg prevented you to install two unrelated packages that happen to have a real file conflict. In other cases, like in the example above, this failure is just the result of a mistake.

Folder with gears

The version 2.0.3-1 of gbonds split the architecture independent files in a separate package called gbonds-data but the maintainer forgot to add the required control field in gbonds-data (Replaces: gbonds (<< 2.0.3-1)). That field allows dpkg to take over files from the listed packages.

If you want to ignore the file conflict and let dpkg take over the file (even without the Replaces), you can pass the --force-overwrite command-line option.

But you’re not using dpkg directly, you’re probably using an APT frontend (like apt-get or aptitude). Don’t worry, there’s a simple way to define custom dpkg options to use:

# apt-get -o Dpkg::Options::="--force-overwrite" install gbonds-data

The syntax is a bit weird, but the “::” after “Options” is important, it’s the syntax that defines a list item value instead of a single value. And you can effectively pass multiple options to dpkg by putting multiple -o Dpkg::Options::="…".

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Howto to rebuild Debian packages

Being able to rebuild an existing Debian package is a very useful skill. It’s a prerequisite for many tasks that an admin might want to perform at some point: enable a feature that is disabled in the official Debian package, rebuild a source package for another suite (for example build a Debian Testing package for use on Debian Stable, we call that backporting), include a bug fix that upstream developers prepared, etc. Discover the 4 steps to rebuild a Debian package.

1. Download the source package

The preferred way to download source packages is to use APT. It can download them from the source repositories that you have configured in /etc/apt/sources.list, for example:

deb-src http://ftp.debian.org/debian unstable main contrib non-free
deb-src http://ftp.debian.org/debian testing main contrib non-free
deb-src http://ftp.debian.org/debian stable main contrib non-free

Note that the lines start with “deb-src” instead of the usual “deb”. This tells APT that we are interested in the source packages and not in the binary packages.

After an apt-get update you can use apt-get source publican to retrieve the latest version of the source package “publican”. You can also indicate the distribution where the source package must be fetched with the syntax “package/distribution“. apt-get source publican/testing will grab the source package publican in the testing distribution and extract it in the current directory (with dpkg-source -x, thus you need to have installed the dpkg-dev package).

$ apt-get source publican/testing
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
NOTICE: 'publican' packaging is maintained in the 'Git' version control system at:
git://git.debian.org/collab-maint/publican.git
Need to get 727 kB of source archives.
Get:1 http://nas/debian/ squeeze/main publican 2.1-2 (dsc) [2253 B]
Get:2 http://nas/debian/ squeeze/main publican 2.1-2 (tar) [720 kB]
Get:3 http://nas/debian/ squeeze/main publican 2.1-2 (diff) [4728 B]
Fetched 727 kB in 0s (2970 kB/s)  
dpkg-source: info: extracting publican in publican-2.1
dpkg-source: info: unpacking publican_2.1.orig.tar.gz
dpkg-source: info: unpacking publican_2.1-2.debian.tar.gz
$ ls -dF publican*
publican-2.1/                 publican_2.1-2.dsc
publican_2.1-2.debian.tar.gz  publican_2.1.orig.tar.gz

If you don’t want to use APT, or if the source package is not hosted in an APT source repository, you can download a complete source package with dget -u dsc-url where dsc-url is the URL of the .dsc file representing the source package. dget is provided by the devscripts package. Note that the -u option means that the origin of the source package is not verified before extraction.

2. Install the build-dependencies

Again APT can do the grunt work for you, you just have to use apt-get build-dep foo to install the build-dependencies for the last version of the source package foo. It supports the same syntactic sugar than apt-get source so that you can run apt-get build-dep publican/testing to install the build-dependencies required to build the testing version of the publican source package.

If you can’t use APT for this, enter the directory where the source package has been unpacked and run dpkg-checkbuilddeps. It will spit out a list of unmet build dependencies (if there are any, otherwise it will print nothing and you can go ahead safely). With a bit of copy and paste and a “apt-get install” invocation, you’ll install the required packages in a few seconds.

3. Do whatever changes you need

I won’t detail this step since it depends on your specific goal with the rebuild. You might have to edit debian/rules, or to apply a patch.

But one thing is sure, if you have made any change or have recompiled the package in a different environment, you should really change its version number. You can do this with “dch --local foo” (again from the devscripts package), replace “foo” by a short name identifying you as the supplier of the updated version. It will update debian/changelog and invite you to write a small entry documenting your change.

4. Build the package

The last step is also the simplest one now that everything is in place. You must be in the directory of the unpacked source package.
Now run either “debuild -us -uc” (recommended, requires the devscripts package) or directly “dpkg-buildpackage -us -uc”. The “-us -uc” options avoid the signature step in the build process that would generate a (harmless) failure at the end if you have no GPG key matching the name entered in the top entry of the Debian changelog.

$ cd publican-2.1
$ debuild -us -uc
 dpkg-buildpackage -rfakeroot -D -us -uc
dpkg-buildpackage: export CFLAGS from dpkg-buildflags (origin: vendor): -g -O2
dpkg-buildpackage: export CPPFLAGS from dpkg-buildflags (origin: vendor): 
dpkg-buildpackage: export CXXFLAGS from dpkg-buildflags (origin: vendor): -g -O2
dpkg-buildpackage: export FFLAGS from dpkg-buildflags (origin: vendor): -g -O2
dpkg-buildpackage: export LDFLAGS from dpkg-buildflags (origin: vendor): 
dpkg-buildpackage: source package publican
dpkg-buildpackage: source version 2.1-2rh1
dpkg-buildpackage: source changed by Raphaël Hertzog 
 dpkg-source --before-build publican-2.1
dpkg-buildpackage: host architecture i386
[...]
dpkg-deb: building package `publican' in `../publican_2.1-2rh1_all.deb'.
 dpkg-genchanges  >../publican_2.1-2rh1_i386.changes
dpkg-genchanges: not including original source code in upload
 dpkg-source --after-build publican-2.1
dpkg-buildpackage: binary and diff upload (original source NOT included)
Now running lintian...
Finished running lintian.

The build is over, the updated source and binary packages have been generated in the parent directory.

$ cd ..
$ ls -dF publican*
publican-2.1/                    publican_2.1-2rh1.dsc
publican_2.1-2.debian.tar.gz     publican_2.1-2rh1_i386.changes
publican_2.1-2.dsc               publican_2.1-2rh1_source.changes
publican_2.1-2rh1_all.deb        publican_2.1.orig.tar.gz
publican_2.1-2rh1.debian.tar.gz

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